Behavioral Neuroscience, lecture on VIP in Biological Rhythms
USD Department of Biology
Behavioral Neuroscience
Summers
Rhythmicity & Behavior
Sensory input for Rhythmicity
Afferent path to the SCN
Circadian Rhythms
AVP & VIP Efferent SCN output
Integration of Rhythms into Behavior
Glu
VIP
AVP
GABA
5-HT
Figures of Rhythmicity
Retina-RGC-SCN
Molecular SCN
end  Acronyms/Abbreviations   Syllabus
BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS
VII. AVP 			
	A. Vasopressin (AVP) is in the neurohypophysial peptide family
	   	
		1. also includes Oxytocin (OT), Arginine Vasotocin (AVT)
		
			a. Vasopressin subfamily: Argipressin (AVP), Lypressin, 
			   Phenypressin, Vasotocin
			
			b. Tocic subfamily: OT, Mesotocin, Seritocin, Isotocin, 
			   Glumitocin, Sharkitocin
			
			c. Invertebrate AVP/OT family peptides: Diuretic Hormone, 
			   Annetocin, Lys/Arg-Connopressin, Cephalotocin, Octopressin
			   		
		2. all have 9 amino acids
		   AVP: Cys-Tyr-Phe-Gln-Asn-Cys-Pro-Arg-Gly  or C-Y-F-Q-N-C-P-R-G
		   
			
	B. AVP Receptors in a family of 7tm receptors: V1A, V1B, V2, OT

		1. V1: 2 subtypes for all extrarenal sites
		
			a. V1A in brain, liver, blood vessels (including kidney) 
			
				i. effects circadian rhythms (tau), social recognition
			
			b. V1B (aka V3) in brain and pituitary
			
				i.  stress HPA response, 
				   social interpretation of olfaction

			c. V1GpPLCIP3Ca++CalmodulinCAM Kinase
			     and 
			                   PLCDGPKC

		2. V2 only in renal tubules

			a. V2GsACcAMPPKACREBCRE
	
		
	C. Endocrine functions of AVP
			
		1. Osmoregulation: AVP release controlled by osmoreceptors in the brain							

			a. V2 receptors increase osmotic permeability of renal tubules

				i. water is reabsorbed - antidiuresis (ADH)

	
		2. Blood pressure

			a.  via V1 receptors contracting
 				   smooth muscle of arterioles

			b.  dipsogenesis - drinking


		3. control of HPA axis (stress)

			a. AVP potentiates CRF-induced ACTH secretion					

			b. AVP + CRF colocalized in PVN neurons
					
					
	D. Regional Brain Expression

		1. SCN shell
				
		2. Anterior Hypothalamus (AH)
		
		3. Paraventricular Nucleus (PVN) and Supraoptic Nucleus (SON)
		
			a. to neurohypophysis (hormonal)
			
			b. to median eminence (horomonal; synergism with CRF on HPA)
			
			c. to brainstem autonomic nuclei
		
		3. Dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMN)
		
		4. Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis (BNST)
		
			a. project to lateral septum, medial amygdala, periaqueductal grey
		
		5. medial Amygdala (MeA)
		
			a. project to ventral Hippocampus
		   
		6. Septum
		
		7. Locus ceruleus (also makes NE)
		   
	
	E. Functions of Neuroactive AVP
	
		1. circadian rhythmicity
		
			a. SCN
			
				i. SCN projects AVP to PVN
				
				ii. stress stimulates SCN AVP secretion
		
		2. temperature regulation
		
			a. DMN
		
		3. blood pressure regulation
		
			a. PVN  
		
		4. anxiety
		
			a. BNST  Septum  Amygdala
		
		5. promote aggression
		
			a. AH = attack area, MeA and lateral Septum
				
		6. memory formation: delayed reflexes, image, short- and long-term memory
		
			a. social recognition, social communication
			
				i. septum
		
		7. Pair-bonding (monogamy)
		
			a. > V1A expression in v Pallidum
			
				i. longer upstream DNA sequences to the V1A gene

					(1) in prairie voles, bonobos, humans
		
			b. also see aggression

VI. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP)

VIII. g-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)

IX. Serotonin (5-HT)

X. Circadian Rhythms