Endocrinology, lecture on endocrine glands
USD Department of Biology
Endocrine Glands
2nd Messengers
Nuclear Receptors
Genetic Regulation
Hormone Synthesis
Receptor Regulation
Hypothalamo-Hypophysial Communication
Tropic Hormones
Neurohypophysial Nonapeptides
Thyroid Axis
Adrenal Axis
Adrenal Medulla
Osmotic-Pressure Balance
Reproductive Endocrinology
Somatic Axis
Growth Factors
Immune Factors
Ca++, PO4 Homeostasis
Pancreatic Hormones
GI Hormones
Guts 'n Brains
Brain Hormones
Endocrine Evolution
Figures for Endocrionology
text:Vertebrate Endocrinology5th Edition - David O. Norris:
Read pages 7-12 for this lecture
acronyms    end
II. Endocrine Glands		

	A. Hypothalamus

		1. Secretes Releasing Hormones - TRH, GnRH, GHRH, CRH, PRH, MSHRH,

			a. from neurosecretory neurons

			b. into neurohemal organ at the median eminance

				i. travel via Hypothalamo-Hypophysial Portal System

				ii. to pituitary

			c. stimulate tropic hormone release

		2. Secretes Release-Inhibiting Hormones - GHRIH, MSHRIH, DA

		3. Secretes neurotransmitters

			a. normal neurons are a part of the hypothalamus

				i. many hormones are also neurotransmitters

					(1) NE, ACTH, Angiotensin II, GnRH, VIP,  b-endorphin,
					   somatostatin, AVP, Neuropeptide Y ...

	B. Pituitary

		1.  3 parts

		2. adenohypophysis

			a. secretes tropic hormones - ACTH, LH, FSH, GH, PrL, TSH, LPH

		3. intermediate lobe

			a. secretes MSH

		4. neurohypophysis

			a. secretes neurohormones - AVP, Oxy

	C. Peripheral Endocrine Glands

		1. Thyroid - T3, T4

			a. Parathyroid - PTH, CT

		2. Heart - ANF

		3. Thymus - Thymopoietin, Thymulin
			a. immune cells - IL1, 5-HT

		4. Liver - Angiotensin II

		5. Stomach - Gastrin

		6.Intestines - CCK, Secretin, VIP, GIP, Somatostatin, Motilin,
		   Neurotensin, Substance P, Neuropeptide Y, Enteroglucagon...

		7. Pancreas - Insulin, Glucagon

		8. Kidneys - Renin, CT

		9. Adrenals

			a. cortex - B, F, Aldosterone, DHEA

				i. fetal zone - DHEA -> placental E3 (estriol)

			b. medulla - Epi, NE

		10. Gonads

			a. ovaries - E2, relaxin, P, inhibin, activin

				i. corpus luteum - P

			b. testes - T, DHT, inhibin, activin

		11. Placenta - hCG, hCS (=hPL), P, E3, GnRH, TRH, CRH,
		    somatostatin, inhibin...

		12. Pineal Gland - melatonin

		13. other parts of the brain - serotonin, peptide neuromodulators..
		14. Fat (adipose tissure) - leptin

III. Target tissue and Receptors