Behavioral Neuroscience, lecture on Leech and its behavior
USD Department of Biology
Behavioral Neuroscience
Leech Shortening
Sensory Stimulation of Shortening
S&R Sensitization
Motor Efferents
Neuromuscular Function
Leech figures
Shortening Neurocircuitry
end     Acronyms/Abbreviations
Sensitization - Leech
IX. ACh = Acetylcholine 			back to  Motor Stimulation of Shortening
		        I I
	A. substrates: choline and acetyl CoA
	                       (diet)       (Glycolysis and Kreb's)
		1. synthetic enzyme: choline acetyltransferase (CAT)

			a. cytosolic   (most is synaptic)
				i. vesicular transporter = vAChT necessary
					(1) package ACh for synaptic release

			b. CoA left over

		2. degradative enzyme: acetylcholine esterase (AChE)

			a. membrane protein

			b. catabolites = choline and acetate

			c. turnover = 150ms	or	5,000 ACh molecules/s

	B. Muscarinic and Nicotinic Receptors 	(membrane proteins)

		1. muscarinic M1 - M5    7tm

			a. slow response time (100 - 250 ms)

			b. act directly on ion channels 	

				i. open or close K+, Ca++, or Cl- channels

					(1) may lead to depolarization 
					   or hyperpolarization

			c. and activate 2nd messenger system (via G proteins)
				i. M1,3,5 Gp(q)асPLCасIP3 & Ca++

				ii. M2,4 GsасACасcAMP ас PKA ас CREB ас CRE

		2. Nicotinic

			a. four glycosylated peptide chains a, b, g, d in muscle
			b. neuronal only a & b

			c. ACh binds to the a subunit

				i. binding causes conformational change

					(1) allows cations, not anions, to pass

					(2) Ca++ passing stimulates muscular contraction
					     of longitudinal, oblique, circumferential, and dorsoventral 
	C. Central ACh Distribution in vertebrates: Involved in Learning
		1. ACh is produced in the nucleus basalis 

			a. projections to the cerebral cortex and many parts of the brain

			b. these cells degenerate during Alzheimer's disease

		2. ACh is in 2 specific populations in the limbic system

			a. septum to hippocampus  & habenulo-endopeduncular projections

			b. short axon striatal cells
	D. Autonomic NS
		1. all sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons

		2. parasympathetic postganglionic neurons
	E. ACh as a transmitter for motor actions and coordination
		1. motor neurons 
	\ all skeletal neuromuscular junctions
			a. Invertebrates
				i. Leech L, VE, DE, AE, HE
				ii. Aplysia gill and siphon  retraction
			b. Vertebrates motoneurons of the spinal cord
		2. Cells in the caudate-putamen nucleus involved in motor coordination 
		3. PPT and LPT innervation of substantia nigra

X. Neuromuscular Function

XI. Integrated Story of Leech Sensitized Shortening