Biology of Reproduction, Endocrinology & Neurobiology

Acronyms and Abbreviations for Summers' Courses           USD

Cliff Summers                     Researchers                     Research                     Publications                     Contact Us                    

Abbreviations & Acronyms 2014 search for:                                        

abbreviation or acronym name alternative
1o primary
2o secondary
2N diploid
3o tertiary
4o quaternary
5-HT serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine
5-HTP 5-hydroxytryptophan
[x] concentration of x
\ therefore

aa amino acid
aaad aromatic amino acid decarboxylase = DOPA / 5-HTP decarboxylase
ACadenylate cyclase
ACh acetylcholine
AChE acetylcholine esterase(s)
ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone corticotropin
AMPA a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionic acid
ANF atrionatriuretic factor ANH, ANP, atriopeptin
APS Anterior Hypothalamic, Supraoptic, Suprachiasmatic Center
A-R androgen receptor
ARC arcuate nucleus
Arg arginine R
Asp aspartate D
ATP adenosine triphosphate
AVP arginine vasopressin antidiuretic hormone ADH
B corticosterone cort
BDNF brain-derived neurotrophic factor
BNP brain natriuretic peptide
Ca++ calcium
CA1-4 Ammon's Horn region 1-4 Cornuae Ammonae
cAMP cyclic adenosine monophosphate
CAT choline acetyltransferase
CeA central nucleus of the amygdala CNA
CCK cholecystekinin
cGMP cyclic guanosine monophosphate
CNS central nervous system
CNTF ciliary neurotrophic factor
CO carbon monoxide
COMT catechol-O-methyltransferase
[x] concentration of x
CREBcAMP regulatory element-binding protein
CRH corticotropin-releasing hormone CRF
Cys cysteine C
2N diploid
d daltons
D1,2,3 dopamine receptors
DA dopamine
DAT dopamine transporter
db leptin receptor gene
DBH dopamine b-hydroxylase
DG diacylglycerol DAG
DHEA dihydroepiandrosterone
DHEAS dihydroepiandrosterone DHEA-S
DHT 5a-dihydrotestosterone 5a-DHT
DOPA dihydroxyphenylalanine
E estrogen (general abbreviation )
E1 estrone (an estrogen)
E2 estradiol-17b estradiol (an estrogen)
E3 estriol (an estrogen)
bEnd endorphin
EGFs epidermal growth factors urogastrone
Epi epinephrine E, EP, adrenalin = A
EPo erythropoietin EPO
E-R estrogen receptor
ERT estrogen replacement therapy
FGFs fibroblast growth factors
F cortisol cort
Gal galanin GAL
Gs,i,k, or p (11,q) G-protein GTP binding protein
Ga,b,and or g a,b,and or g subunits of a G-protein
GABA g-aminobutyric acid
GC guanylate cyclase
GDNF glial derived neurotrophic factor
GH growth hormone
GHRH growth hormone releasing hormone GRH
GHRIH growth hormone release inhibiting hormone GIH, somatostatin
Glu glutamate E
GIP gastrointestinal polypeptide gastric inhibitory peptide
GnRH gonadotropin-releasing hormone LHRH
GRB2 growth factor receptor bound protein
GRP gastrin releasing peptide
GTP guanosine triphosphate
Hcrt hypocretin/orexin Orx, Ox
HRT hormone replacement therapy
hsp90 heat shock protein 90 HSP90
IFNg interferon-g M
IGF1,2 insulin-like growth factors collectively IGFs, somatomedins
IL1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13 interleukins collectively ILs
IP3 inositol trisphosphate inositol triphosphate
INAH3 3rd interstitial nucleus of the mPOA in the medial preoptic area
of the anterior hypothalamus
JaK1,2,3janus tyrosine kinasesalso TyK2
K+ potassium
KAaffininty constant
KDdissociation constant
LC locus ceruleus locus coeruleus
LPA,B lipoxins LPA-B
LTA lateral tegmental area
LTA4,B4,C4,D4,E4 leukotrienes LTA-E4
LTD long term depression
LTP long-term potentiation
MAO monoamine oxidase MAOA, MAOB
MAPmitogen activation proteins
MAP KMAP kinase
MAP KKMAP K kinase
MBHmedial basal hypothalamus
Mn metanephrine
MPOAmedial preoptic area
MSH melanocyte stimulating hormone aMSH
MSHRH melanocyte stimulating hormone releasing hormone MRF
MSHRIH melanocyte stimulating hormone release inhibiting hormone MIF
N1,2,3,4,5 neurotrophins (1 through 5) collectively Ns
Na+ sodium
NE norepinephrine NEP
noradrenalin = NA
NET norepinephrine transporter
NGF nerve growth factor
NM normetanephrine
NMDA N-methyl-D-aspartate
NO nictric oxide
NOS nitric oxide synthase
NR1,2a,2b NMDA-R subunits
NPY neuropeptide Y
NSF N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor also refers to the
National Science Foundation
NTS nucleus of the solitary tract nST
ob leptin gene
Ob-Ra,b,c,d,e leptin receptorsa-e Ob-R
Orx Orexin (aka hypocretin) Hcrt
OrxA,B orexin/hypocretin ligand variantsA & B Hcrt1,2
Orx1,2 orexin/hypocretin receptors1 & 2 HcrtA,B
OT oxytocin OXY, Oxy
1o primary
P progesterone
P450aro aromatase
P450C17b 17b-hydroxylase
PAG periaqueductal gray MCG, midbrain central gray
PDE phosphodiesterase
PDGF platelet-derived growth factor
PGs prostaglandins PGA2, PGE1,2, PGF1,2a
PGI prostacyclin
PHI peptide histidine isoleucine
PIP2 phosphotidylinositol bisphosphate phosphotidylinositol biphosphate
PKA, C or G protein kinases A, C or G
PLCphospholipase C
PNMT phenyletholamine N-methyltransferase
PNS peripheral nervous system
POApreoptic area
POMC pro-opiomelanocortin
PP pancreatic polypeptide
PrL prolactin PRL, Prl
PVperiventricular nucleus
PVNparaventricular nuleus
PYY peptide YY
-R hormone or transmitter receptor e.g. GnRH-R
2o secondary
SCN suprachiasmatic nucleus
5-HT serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine
5-HTP 5-hydroxytryptophan
SONsupraoptic nucleus
SNAP soluable NSF attachment protein
SNARE SNAP receptor
SRP signal recognition particle
STAT signal transducers and activation of transcription
\ therefore
3o tertiary
T testosterone
T3 tri-iodothyronine (a thyroid hormone)
To temperature Tob = body temperature
Toa = ambient temperature
T4 thyroxine =tetra-iodothyronine
(a thyroid hormone)
TDF testis determining factor
TGFa,b transforming growth factorsa-b
TH tyrosine hydroxylase
TRH thyrotropin-releasing hormone
VAMP synaptobrevin
VIP vasoactive intestinal polypeptide
VMN ventromedial nucleus VMH
VTA ventral tegmental area
[x] concentration of x

Introductory Courses General Biology

Advanced/Graduate Courses Behavioral Neuroscience Biology of Reproduction Endocrinology Neurobiology
Graduate Courses Advanced Seminars in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology
Neuroscience Group at USD                     Biology Department                     Summers' Biology Webpage                     Summers Lab Home                     Contact Us                     USD